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Homo naledi is a previously-unknown species of extinct hominin discovered within the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa.

This species is characterized by body mass and stature similar to small-bodied human populations but a small endocranial volume similar to australopiths. Cranial morphology of H. Homo bb 333 primitive, the dentition is generally Homo bb 333 and simple in occlusal morphology. It also exhibits a humanlike foot and lower limb. These humanlike aspects are contrasted in the postcrania with a more primitive or australopith-like trunk, shoulder, pelvis and proximal femur.

Representing at least 15 individuals with most skeletal elements repeated multiple times, this is the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa. Modern humans, or Homo sapiensare now the only living species in their genus. But as recently asyears ago, there were several other species that belonged to the genus Homo.

Now Berger et al.

The unearthed fossils were from at least 15 individuals and include multiple examples of most of the bones in the skeleton. Based on this wide Homo bb 333 of specimens from a single site, Berger et al. Furthermore, while the skull had several unique features, it had a small braincase that was most similar in size to other early hominin species that lived between four million and two million years ago. Homo naledi 's ribcage, shoulders and pelvis also more closely resembled those of earlier hominin species than those of modern humans.

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The Homo naledi fossils are the largest collection of a single species of hominin that has been discovered in Africa so far and, in a related study, Dirks et al. However, since the age of the fossils remains unclear, one of the next challenges will be to date the remains to provide more information about the early evolution of humans and their close relatives. Fossil hominins were first recognized in the Dinaledi Chamber in the Rising Star cave system in October During a relatively short excavation, our team recovered an extensive collection of hominin specimens, representing nearly every element of the skeleton multiple times Figure 1including many complete elements and morphologically informative fragments, some in articulation, as well as smaller fragments many of which could be refit into more complete elements.

The collection is a morphologically homogeneous sample that can be attributed to no previously-known hominin species. Here we describe this new species, Homo naledi.

We have not defined H. The figure includes Homo bb 333 all of the material incorporated in this diagnosis, including the holotype specimen, paratypes and referred material. These make up partial or complete anatomical elements, many of which consist of several Homo bb 333 specimens.

Specimens not identified to element, such as non-diagnostic long bone or cranial fragments, and a subset of fragile specimens are not shown here. This view is foreshortened; the table upon which the bones are arranged is cm wide for scale.

The present sample of skeletal material from the Dinaledi Chamber was recovered during two field expeditions, in November and March Six specimens from an ex situ context can be identified as bird bones, and few fragmentary rodent remains have Homo bb 333 recovered within the excavation area.

Neither of these faunal constituents can presently be associated with the hominin fossil collection Dirks et al. Aside from Homo bb 333 limited faunal materials, the Dinaledi collection is entirely composed of hominin skeletal and dental remains. The collection so far comprises fossil hominin specimens, this number includes bone specimens and isolated dental specimens; an additional 53 teeth are present in mandibular or maxillary bone specimens.

Likewise, aside from the few bird elements, all morphologically informative bone specimens are clearly hominin. In all cases where elements are repeated in the sample, they are morphologically homogeneous, with variation consistent with body size and sex differences within a single population.

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These remains represent a minimum of 15 hominin individuals, as indicated by the repetition and presence of deciduous and adult dental elements. The geological age of the fossils is not yet known. Excavations have thus far recovered hominin material from Unit 2 and Unit 3 in the chamber Dirks et al.

Surface-collected hominin material from the present top of Unit 3, which includes material derived from both Unit 2 and Unit 3, represents a minority of the assemblage, and is morphologically indistinguishable from material excavated from in situ within Unit 3.

In addition to general morphological homogeneity including cranial shape, distinctive morphological configurations of all the recovered first metacarpals, femora, molars, lower premolars and lower canines, are identical in both surface-collected and excavated specimens see Figure 14 later in the text.

These include traits not found in any other hominin species yet described. These considerations strongly indicate that this material represents a single species, and not a commingled assemblage. Dinaledi Hominin 1 DH1 comprises the partial calvaria, partial maxilla, and nearly complete mandible of a presumed male individual, based on size and morphology within the sample Figure 2 ; Supplementary file 1.

The holotype was recovered in situ during excavations within the Dinaledi Chamber in March ofembedded Homo bb 333 unconsolidated fine clay matrix Dirks et al.

Dinaledi Hominin 2 DH2 is a partial calvaria that preserves parts of the frontal, left and right parietals, right temporal, and occipital Figure 3 ; Supplementary file 1. Dinaledi Hominin 3 DH3 is a partial calvaria of a presumed female individual that preserves parts of the frontal, left parietal, left temporal, and sphenoid Figure 4Supplementary Homo bb 333 1. Dinaledi Hominin 4 DH4 is a partial calvaria that preserves parts of the right temporal, right parietal, and occipital Figure 3 ; Homo bb 333 file 1.

Dinaledi Hominin 5 DH5 is a partial calvaria that preserves part of the left temporal and occipital Figure 3 ; Supplementary file 1. These cranial specimens agree closely in nearly all morphological details where they overlap in areas preserved except those we interpret as related to sex.

A DH2, right lateral view.

B DH5, left lateral view. C DH4, right lateral view.

D DH4, posterior view. B Left lateral view, with calvaria in articulation with the mandible U. Mandible in D medial view; E Homo bb 333 view; F basal view. DH3 was a relatively old individual at time of death, with extreme tooth wear.

A Lateral view; B medial view; C basal view; D occlusal view. D The distinctive mandibular premolar morphology with elongated talonids in unworn state. Dinaledi hand 1 H1 is a nearly complete missing only the pisiform right hand, found articulated in association, comprising specimens U.

Dinaledi foot 1 F1 is a partial foot skeleton missing only the medial cuneiform and the phalanges of rays II—V. Foot 1 Homo bb 333 composed of specimens U. Palmar view on left; dorsal view on right. This hand was discovered in articulation and all bones are represented except for the pisiform.


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